The Division of Work (5)



The identity


All about we mentioned in previous chapters are statements which need more detail and if possible to demonstrate with real facts. For now we can accept these premises, then an analysis of current human society or societies.

In the statements made so far it has been assumed from a viewpoint quite ‘materialistic’ and ‘apolitical’, the development of human societies are not otherwise part of the development of living beings, of life on the planet and the cosmos. Such as there were great animals groups called dinosaurs which populated and dominated the earth, the man is a result of millions of evolutions years and continues a course under our planet changes. Fortunately we have the capacity to transform the nature, so it allows us to improve our way of life, but if we don’t know use it adequately it could lead us to our selfdestruction.

So, at this point we can ask where are we going to and what is our future as human society. This question must be analyzed. Firstly if we can see the humanity as a whole, I mean as a system, we should ask if it is true.

Unfortunately the civilization development, maybe since our anthropoid origin, or by the migrations of the firsts human groups, was based in ethnic societies and culture differences, it is so ingrained in our nature with certain process changes, sometimes integrators, sometimes disintegrators. This situation, although there are certain level of consciousness which recognize it and it is going to an ideological overcoming, still persists. So, when we are talking about the humanity it is necessary to take account that there are several human groups. If a development country representative makes a speech about his worry about the humanity, we must analyze if he tacitly is talking about the future of his particular social group, maybe the rest of the humanity only is important if they aid to the wellness  of his social group. In this case, we ought not judge to that person’s attitude, he only would be playing a role which the actual humanity situation imposes him as a leader of a group which has come a hit in its social development.



If we want to talk about the humanity, we need wait a cultural evolution of our societies to make possible a social integration which allows us someday we can identify us in a real and effectively unique human group


So, if we want to talk about the humanity, we need wait a cultural evolution of our societies to make possible a social integration which allows us someday we can identify us in a real and effectively unique human group. How to reach it is something that we will talk later. Certainly to get it we need to analyze our actual society.

If we make an initial classification of the countries, as a developed and undeveloped, without to mention facts as economic dependences or  imperialisms, we can say that there are a first difference between countries, the difference is that developed countries have the privilege of leading the human activity of seeking survival, while societies of underdeveloped countries can hardly survive pursue. So, the humanity future will depend largely of the developed countries, their space exploration programs, its technological advances, its military activities and culture in general. These leader countries group will take to the others to a development or to stagnation. Recall for example the medieval obscurantism imposed by the leaders of the old continent, a partial cultural stagnation that negatively influenced the development of humanity countries.

The present persistence of a great difference between the level of life of the persons belonging to the developed and the undeveloped countries allows us see that we have so much to improve about our social and cultural development as humans being; worse if we mention the cases of very poor countries hunger and wars still present in different parts of the planet. We can not yet say in a triumphalist way that we have reached a perfect society.

So today, even with cases of starvation and death, humanity is being dragged to the results of an accelerated technological progress led by the developed countries, we do not know where we will conduct space travel, computers and genetic; the fact is that if these advances do not solve the above problems can reach a situation of social explosions that constantly put the stability of the developed countries at risk.

It would be conclusive that it would be expected that the developed countries to help solve social problems of the world without neglecting its task of space exploration; but if they were true some theories which establish that developed countries need that developing countries remain as such in order to survive based on their exploit, there would be no more hope for the undeveloped portion of humanity. But these theories can not be too true, because we believe that the evolution of mankind is superior to the developed countries wills, and eventually we can overcome our present serious problems, not necessarily with revolutionary wars, it will be possible for that as previously we mentioned the great social changes may have cultural, military, technical or ecological origin.

The unbalanced development


Although the standard of living in the developed countries is a high level compared with that of the underdeveloped ones, not everything goes so well, the economic and social problems as the unemployment for example are to the agenda, not with the gravity of the underdeveloped countries, but yes with the sufficient magnitude to generate a dissatisfaction largely of the population of these countries. It seems slightly contradictory, for example that whereas the automation seemingly brings less effort, and more serviceability in the productive work; nevertheless it brings a traumatic reduction in the participation of the individual inside the division of work, and outsider of this one ends up by being so harmed. If we were returning to the example of the primitive tribe, it would be for example as if with the invention of the arrow, instead of relieving the task of the hunting and making her more ideal for benefit of all with the biggest production of food, it generates rather that the hunters of stones hardware stay without employment and die of famine.


It seems slightly contradictory, for example that whereas the automation seemingly brings a traumatic reduction in the participation of the individual inside the division of work, and outsider of this one ends up by being so harmed

A well managed technologic development must not create discomfort but well-being, and if this way it happened there is something that does not work well in the society. And what happens is exactly that there is a bad direction of the technological development; the productive leaders of the developed countries are being led by an excessive emulation of survival as such, that inside the current ambience of competition have no conscience in generating social problems. On this matter we believe, that the situation can excel oneself without need of that beech traumatic changes in the leadership of the economic current agents, we do not believe that the man could not overcome this.

The human culture unity

If we were hoping that the humanity should keep on evolving, and if we are optimistic with the result prognosis, we could say that the day when the humanity will be identified as one, racial, politics, religious problems  overcoming there will be the end of wars and hungry. We are going to imagine that the God Allah presents everybody to himself and says “ once and for all, the confusion was finished, I am the only God and they must continue my educations ”, there would be so clear his truth that it would eliminate to all the religions that are not Moslem and we all would have to accept this religion, and consistently already they would not fit wars for religious motives you nor differ for religious motives.


There are so many religions in the world and all claim to have the one true God, true or there are many gods and most are lying

Then, we are going to suppose the genetic experiments make possible to reproduce human beings with an ideal standard of race, in such a way that only a race was staying in the human society; the racial problems would be eliminated. With the elimination of the religious and racial differences it would have been advanced enough; we would have a cultural campaign left to create a human universal conscience, which despite the historical differences of the countries and continents, and despite the social differences between human groups there imposes on itself the beginning of equality of rights.

Logically we cannot assure when they might happen this pair of miracles that would help us to overcome the social problems of the human societies, the true thing is that it is necessary to do an effort to overcome them without waiting for these miracles.

Firstly, about religions, we know that it would be an error to impose an atheism culture which prohibit all religion act, the communism experience about it only created a series of abuse against human freedom and it did not erase the people religious sense at all, why?, maybe because it obligated the human being to release of something that is ingrained in its ancient culture which is part of its social identity, for nothing, or rather in exchange for another ‘religion’ policy it did not fully satisfy the spiritual needs of the person. This neither could lead us to the extreme of setting to religions as something untouchable nor unquestionable. We know it is not, for example nobody is indifferent when the Pope speaks out against the methods of birth control, many call him a retrograde not so encouraging the invalidity of the Catholic religion, or many condemn such intolerance of certain when Muslim leaders condemn to death a writer, or many not you think also that Indian cows are considered sacred when there is enough hunger in that country. Religions also evolve, and when the culture at large, such as science, reaches an impressive degree of advancement and in contradiction with religion, the latter has to give and adapt to changes; the important thing is that scientific discoveries must be disseminated clearly to be inserted into human culture and  create norms of behavior and ways of seeing life and the universe according to the degree of knowledge that is coming stepper man, many of the reasons why religions were formed no longer relevant today with so many scientific discoveries. For example if we found in the Amazon to a tribe that worships the sun as a supreme god, it would be incorrect we remain indifferent to such a mistake, we would try to educate them to show them that the sun is just one of millions of stars in the universe. Then, seeing now that a lot of blood is spilled in the name of religious beliefs, we should take conscience that if there are a thousand religions in the world, at least 999 must be wrong, because it would be absurd to have a thousand absolute truths, or creators of the universe thousand gods who fight among themselves. The truth is that what we are certain is our progress in the knowledge of the cosmos, and that’s part of the absolute truth; all that is beyond mere speculation, certainly respectable, but that does not necessarily lead to tremendous differences. Science certainly does not deny God, not supported, but you can ensure that religious beliefs are historical and cultural results subject to mistakes like all that is human. As the world’s great cities are more cosmopolitan, the races are confusing, and there is nothing to prevent racist sentiments are eliminated by the imposition of reality and universality of human culture.


For racial differences, this can be overcome also culturally

As for racial differences, this can be overcome also culturally. Currently racial differences are not manifested only by the appearance of people, but so culturally represents a race. For example, if any xenophobia in Europe with Arab immigrants, but by the looks of them, it is their language, customs, music, religion and any cultural event that brings with it a group of immigrants; this is seen as an intrusion into another culture. Besides that also influences the economic situation of an immigrant group, the poverty it brings, many driven to crime, and anything that gives a negative image and causes rejection. If a rich, educated and modern arab inmigrant comes to Europe, maybe he would not cause quite so much racial rejection because he would be similar to white people. The anatomical and psychological knowledge of man does not emit racist verdicts prove that there are black brilliant political leaders, Chinese researchers that prove to be big, big Latin American athletes, and so on. As the world’s great cities are more cosmopolitan, the races are confusing, and there is nothing to prevent racist sentiments are eliminated by the imposition of reality and universality of human culture.


History shows many milestones that mark major changes in the evolution of human societies; for example, the Athenian cultural development, Christianity, Islam, Renaissance, French Revolution, Socialist Movements, and so on. Many of these questionable, but they are still currents of thought which are historical situations in which they develop in a successful manner and generate social change; they are part of human cultural evolution.

We will take an example, Christianity, not because of it as entirely valid, perfect or force, but that is quite instructive to see how the social phenomenon of the Division of Work is to be perfected by a religious current.

First remember how human societies, from a distant past egalitarian society (assumed as a theoretical model) will take hierarchical forms and divided in large social groups, forming nations, united internally by historical, ethnic and cultural.

Each nation could have a model of internal division of labor, based on hierarchies and differences; but disagrees with the distribution of its assets with another nation, but for the trade by mutual interest.

A nation could seek the extermination or subjugation of another, in the interests of survival.

Old world Asian and European nations presents continuous war with each other, each with a different race and religion, quite irreconcilable.

The people of Israel is a sign of a nation united by their religious laws, rather closed society and struggling to preserve their God’s word in his writings.

Never then the Jewish nation could accept that Gentiles embrace their faith, gentle in itself is a wayward child of God, excluded from birth to belong to the chosen people.

Just as the Jews, other nations have similar religious cultures, which keeps society together as.

The Division of Work in those societies operates within the limits of its geopolitical situation; a nation dominated or enslaved by the Romans as Israel had to pay taxes to Caesar and then distribute his wealth among his people, giving preference to the priesthood. An imperial nation as Rome used his military advantage for extra richness of the dominated peoples and thus give a quality standard of living of its citizens.

The emergence of Christianity really brings new ideas to the world of that time:

  • All people are equal, as children of the same God; whether Romans, Gentiles, Jews, slaves, rich or poor.
  • Love is the greatest manifestation of the human being that must materialize in solidarity and forgiveness to the enemy.
  • The humble and aspirations for material wealth life is a virtue of being human son of God.
  • The wait for a new realm, one governed by Christian principles society, establishes a religion based on a future or in another world, not in this world.

This essay is not intended to be apology of Christianity, we take it as an example of cultural jump with religious origin, a way of thinking of religious origin which over several centuries is influencing patternas of human coexistence

These ideas disrupt Roman society, serfdom and slavery question, the hope of a better life outside the underworld deny now supports the immediate material benefits in exchange for a treasure in heaven, so the individual can transfer their goods and general welfare to those who need to feel better with God.

In the long years of Christianity, including the Middle Ages, you can not say that Christian principles of solidarity and equality have been respected; still less by the ecclesiastical hierarchy; but you can not deny that the gospel message was always present, and now, in societies occasionally questioned the injustices.

The French Revolution brings new principles, Freedom, something alien to the Christian apparently ideas but also it requires equal individual rights, giving it a universal scope; it can be said that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was only possible if he had ever before presented a religion which preached the equality of human beings, regardless of their origin, race and culture.

In modern societies, political regimes try to follow a democratic pattern, have a constitution that tries to follow the guidelines of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; we can say that there is a concerted effort to follow Christian rules 2000 years ago, although it is still far from establishing a perfect society of the early Christian model, which ideally all possibility of inequality and war is eliminated; pacifist early Christianity is one hundred percent, just remember mentions of Jesus Christ to turn the other cheek to the enemy and not to kill sword.

A radical Christian thinking could eliminate discrimination and establish a model of Division of Work where production is distributed as equal as possible and the great injustices and current wars would be avoided.

It whomsoever Jesus Christ, his vision of humanity spread forevermore future to seek breaking cultural inequalities and form a single human organization.

The role of Christianity in the Western cultural evolution is undeniable, however, it has its limitations so it has not been possible to form a society that strictly follow its guidelines; becoming only a spiritual guide for the individual salvation of every believer.

It is not enough seek a fair redistribution of wealth without solve the wealth generating problem, increasingly scarce for a growing world population; this problem is solved only by technology and systems while maintaining hierarchical Division of Work and having developed countries dominating the world market and establish their rules to follow surviving as a society, although other societies suffer shortage.


The fall of the Berlin wall discredits an important world power that tried to change teh face of the world. The laws that govern societies go beyond differences of social class and economica laws, are so complex and dynamic that we can not claim to have control of these.

The socialist model, for example, was looking for a fair redistribution of wealth, but was not able to generate wealth at the same rate in the capitalist world.

Christianity, still present, its principles should still inspire leaders of humanity; anyway, a society that will diminish inequalities breaking the great evils of poverty and violence of modern societies, but not in itself solve the problem of human survival in its exploitation of natural resources and technological needs.



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