Archivo | enero, 2016

THE DIVISION OF WORK (5)

12 Ene

PRESENT DIAGNOSTIC

 

The identity

 

All about we mentioned in previous chapters are statements which need more detail and if possible to demonstrate with real facts. For now we can accept these premises, then an analysis of current human society or societies.

In the statements made so far it has been assumed from a viewpoint quite ‘materialistic’ and ‘apolitical’, the development of human societies are not otherwise part of the development of living beings, of life on the planet and the cosmos. Such as there were great animals groups called dinosaurs which populated and dominated the earth, the man is a result of millions of evolutions years and continues a course under our planet changes. Fortunately we have the capacity to transform the nature, so it allows us to improve our way of life, but if we don’t know use it adequately it could lead us to our selfdestruction.

So, at this point we can ask where are we going to and what is our future as human society. This question must be analyzed. Firstly if we can see the humanity as a whole, I mean as a system, we should ask if it is true.

Unfortunately the civilization development, maybe since our anthropoid origin, or by the migrations of the firsts human groups, was based in ethnic societies and culture differences, it is so ingrained in our nature with certain process changes, sometimes integrators, sometimes disintegrators. This situation, although there are certain level of consciousness which recognize it and it is going to an ideological overcoming, still persists. So, when we are talking about the humanity it is necessary to take account that there are several human groups. If a development country representative makes a speech about his worry about the humanity, we must analyze if he tacitly is talking about the future of his particular social group, maybe the rest of the humanity only is important if they aid to the wellness  of his social group. In this case, we ought not judge to that person’s attitude, he only would be playing a role which the actual humanity situation imposes him as a leader of a group which has come a hit in its social development.

       

cohete-espacial

If we want to talk about the humanity, we need wait a cultural evolution of our societies to make possible a social integration which allows us someday we can identify us in a real and effectively unique human group

        

So, if we want to talk about the humanity, we need wait a cultural evolution of our societies to make possible a social integration which allows us someday we can identify us in a real and effectively unique human group. How to reach it is something that we will talk later. Certainly to get it we need to analyze our actual society.

If we make an initial classification of the countries, as a developed and undeveloped, without to mention facts as economic dependences or  imperialisms, we can say that there are a first difference between countries, the difference is that developed countries have the privilege of leading the human activity of seeking survival, while societies of underdeveloped countries can hardly survive pursue. So, the humanity future will depend largely of the developed countries, their space exploration programs, its technological advances, its military activities and culture in general. These leader countries group will take to the others to a development or to stagnation. Recall for example the medieval obscurantism imposed by the leaders of the old continent, a partial cultural stagnation that negatively influenced the development of humanity countries.

The present persistence of a great difference between the level of life of the persons belonging to the developed and the undeveloped countries allows us see that we have so much to improve about our social and cultural development as humans being; worse if we mention the cases of very poor countries hunger and wars still present in different parts of the planet. We can not yet say in a triumphalist way that we have reached a perfect society.

So today, even with cases of starvation and death, humanity is being dragged to the results of an accelerated technological progress led by the developed countries, we do not know where we will conduct space travel, computers and genetic; the fact is that if these advances do not solve the above problems can reach a situation of social explosions that constantly put the stability of the developed countries at risk.

It would be conclusive that it would be expected that the developed countries to help solve social problems of the world without neglecting its task of space exploration; but if they were true some theories which establish that developed countries need that developing countries remain as such in order to survive based on their exploit, there would be no more hope for the undeveloped portion of humanity. But these theories can not be too true, because we believe that the evolution of mankind is superior to the developed countries wills, and eventually we can overcome our present serious problems, not necessarily with revolutionary wars, it will be possible for that as previously we mentioned the great social changes may have cultural, military, technical or ecological origin.

 

The unbalanced development

 

 

Although the standard of living in the developed countries is a high level compared with that of the underdeveloped ones, not everything goes so well, the economic and social problems as the unemployment for example are to the agenda, not with the gravity of the underdeveloped countries, but yes with the sufficient magnitude to generate a dissatisfaction largely of the population of these countries. It seems slightly contradictory, for example that whereas the automation seemingly brings less effort, and more serviceability in the productive work; nevertheless it brings a traumatic reduction in the participation of the individual inside the division of work, and outsider of this one ends up by being so harmed. If we were returning to the example of the primitive tribe, it would be for example as if with the invention of the arrow, instead of relieving the task of the hunting and making her more ideal for benefit of all with the biggest production of food, it generates rather that the hunters of stones hardware stay without employment and die of famine.

desempleo

It seems slightly contradictory, for example that whereas the automation seemingly brings a traumatic reduction in the participation of the individual inside the division of work, and outsider of this one ends up by being so harmed

A well managed technologic development must not create discomfort but well-being, and if this way it happened there is something that does not work well in the society. And what happens is exactly that there is a bad direction of the technological development; the productive leaders of the developed countries are being led by an excessive emulation of survival as such, that inside the current ambience of competition have no conscience in generating social problems. On this matter we believe, that the situation can excel oneself without need of that beech traumatic changes in the leadership of the economic current agents, we do not believe that the man could not overcome this.

 

 

The human culture unity

 

If we were hoping that the humanity should keep on evolving, and if we are optimistic with the result prognosis, we could say that the day when the humanity will be identified as one, racial, politics, religious problems  overcoming there will be the end of wars and hungry. We are going to imagine that the God Allah presents everybody to himself and says “ once and for all, the confusion was finished, I am the only God and they must continue my educations ”, there would be so clear his truth that it would eliminate to all the religions that are not Moslem and we all would have to accept this religion, and consistently already they would not fit wars for religious motives you nor differ for religious motives.

religiones

There are so many religions in the world and all claim to have the one true God, true or there are many gods and most are lying

Then, we are going to suppose the genetic experiments make possible to reproduce human beings with an ideal standard of race, in such a way that only a race was staying in the human society; the racial problems would be eliminated. With the elimination of the religious and racial differences it would have been advanced enough; we would have a cultural campaign left to create a human universal conscience, which despite the historical differences of the countries and continents, and despite the social differences between human groups there imposes on itself the beginning of equality of rights.

 

Logically we cannot assure when they might happen this pair of miracles that would help us to overcome the social problems of the human societies, the true thing is that it is necessary to do an effort to overcome them without waiting for these miracles.

Firstly, about religions, we know that it would be an error to impose an atheism culture which prohibit all religion act, the communism experience about it only created a series of abuse against human freedom and it did not erase the people religious sense at all, why?, maybe because it obligated the human being to release of something that is ingrained in its ancient culture which is part of its social identity, for nothing, or rather in exchange for another ‘religion’ policy it did not fully satisfy the spiritual needs of the person. This neither could lead us to the extreme of setting to religions as something untouchable nor unquestionable. We know it is not, for example nobody is indifferent when the Pope speaks out against the methods of birth control, many call him a retrograde not so encouraging the invalidity of the Catholic religion, or many condemn such intolerance of certain when Muslim leaders condemn to death a writer, or many not you think also that Indian cows are considered sacred when there is enough hunger in that country. Religions also evolve, and when the culture at large, such as science, reaches an impressive degree of advancement and in contradiction with religion, the latter has to give and adapt to changes; the important thing is that scientific discoveries must be disseminated clearly to be inserted into human culture and  create norms of behavior and ways of seeing life and the universe according to the degree of knowledge that is coming stepper man, many of the reasons why religions were formed no longer relevant today with so many scientific discoveries. For example if we found in the Amazon to a tribe that worships the sun as a supreme god, it would be incorrect we remain indifferent to such a mistake, we would try to educate them to show them that the sun is just one of millions of stars in the universe. Then, seeing now that a lot of blood is spilled in the name of religious beliefs, we should take conscience that if there are a thousand religions in the world, at least 999 must be wrong, because it would be absurd to have a thousand absolute truths, or creators of the universe thousand gods who fight among themselves. The truth is that what we are certain is our progress in the knowledge of the cosmos, and that’s part of the absolute truth; all that is beyond mere speculation, certainly respectable, but that does not necessarily lead to tremendous differences. Science certainly does not deny God, not supported, but you can ensure that religious beliefs are historical and cultural results subject to mistakes like all that is human. As the world’s great cities are more cosmopolitan, the races are confusing, and there is nothing to prevent racist sentiments are eliminated by the imposition of reality and universality of human culture.

razas

For racial differences, this can be overcome also culturally

As for racial differences, this can be overcome also culturally. Currently racial differences are not manifested only by the appearance of people, but so culturally represents a race. For example, if any xenophobia in Europe with Arab immigrants, but by the looks of them, it is their language, customs, music, religion and any cultural event that brings with it a group of immigrants; this is seen as an intrusion into another culture. Besides that also influences the economic situation of an immigrant group, the poverty it brings, many driven to crime, and anything that gives a negative image and causes rejection. If a rich, educated and modern arab inmigrant comes to Europe, maybe he would not cause quite so much racial rejection because he would be similar to white people. The anatomical and psychological knowledge of man does not emit racist verdicts prove that there are black brilliant political leaders, Chinese researchers that prove to be big, big Latin American athletes, and so on. As the world’s great cities are more cosmopolitan, the races are confusing, and there is nothing to prevent racist sentiments are eliminated by the imposition of reality and universality of human culture.

 

A HUMAN CULTURAL EVENT EXAMPLE

 

History shows many milestones that mark major changes in the evolution of human societies; for example, the Athenian cultural development, Christianity, Islam, Renaissance, French Revolution, Socialist Movements, and so on. Many of these questionable, but they are still currents of thought which are historical situations in which they develop in a successful manner and generate social change; they are part of human cultural evolution.

 

We will take an example, Christianity, not because of it as entirely valid, perfect or force, but that is quite instructive to see how the social phenomenon of the Division of Work is to be perfected by a religious current.

First remember how human societies, from a distant past egalitarian society (assumed as a theoretical model) will take hierarchical forms and divided in large social groups, forming nations, united internally by historical, ethnic and cultural.

Each nation could have a model of internal division of labor, based on hierarchies and differences; but disagrees with the distribution of its assets with another nation, but for the trade by mutual interest.

A nation could seek the extermination or subjugation of another, in the interests of survival.

Old world Asian and European nations presents continuous war with each other, each with a different race and religion, quite irreconcilable.

The people of Israel is a sign of a nation united by their religious laws, rather closed society and struggling to preserve their God’s word in his writings.

Never then the Jewish nation could accept that Gentiles embrace their faith, gentle in itself is a wayward child of God, excluded from birth to belong to the chosen people.

Just as the Jews, other nations have similar religious cultures, which keeps society together as.

The Division of Work in those societies operates within the limits of its geopolitical situation; a nation dominated or enslaved by the Romans as Israel had to pay taxes to Caesar and then distribute his wealth among his people, giving preference to the priesthood. An imperial nation as Rome used his military advantage for extra richness of the dominated peoples and thus give a quality standard of living of its citizens.

 

The emergence of Christianity really brings new ideas to the world of that time:

 

  • All people are equal, as children of the same God; whether Romans, Gentiles, Jews, slaves, rich or poor.
  • Love is the greatest manifestation of the human being that must materialize in solidarity and forgiveness to the enemy.
  • The humble and aspirations for material wealth life is a virtue of being human son of God.
  • The wait for a new realm, one governed by Christian principles society, establishes a religion based on a future or in another world, not in this world.
cristianos-martires

This essay is not intended to be apology of Christianity, we take it as an example of cultural jump with religious origin, a way of thinking of religious origin which over several centuries is influencing patternas of human coexistence

These ideas disrupt Roman society, serfdom and slavery question, the hope of a better life outside the underworld deny now supports the immediate material benefits in exchange for a treasure in heaven, so the individual can transfer their goods and general welfare to those who need to feel better with God.

In the long years of Christianity, including the Middle Ages, you can not say that Christian principles of solidarity and equality have been respected; still less by the ecclesiastical hierarchy; but you can not deny that the gospel message was always present, and now, in societies occasionally questioned the injustices.

The French Revolution brings new principles, Freedom, something alien to the Christian apparently ideas but also it requires equal individual rights, giving it a universal scope; it can be said that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was only possible if he had ever before presented a religion which preached the equality of human beings, regardless of their origin, race and culture.

In modern societies, political regimes try to follow a democratic pattern, have a constitution that tries to follow the guidelines of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; we can say that there is a concerted effort to follow Christian rules 2000 years ago, although it is still far from establishing a perfect society of the early Christian model, which ideally all possibility of inequality and war is eliminated; pacifist early Christianity is one hundred percent, just remember mentions of Jesus Christ to turn the other cheek to the enemy and not to kill sword.

A radical Christian thinking could eliminate discrimination and establish a model of Division of Work where production is distributed as equal as possible and the great injustices and current wars would be avoided.

It whomsoever Jesus Christ, his vision of humanity spread forevermore future to seek breaking cultural inequalities and form a single human organization.

The role of Christianity in the Western cultural evolution is undeniable, however, it has its limitations so it has not been possible to form a society that strictly follow its guidelines; becoming only a spiritual guide for the individual salvation of every believer.

It is not enough seek a fair redistribution of wealth without solve the wealth generating problem, increasingly scarce for a growing world population; this problem is solved only by technology and systems while maintaining hierarchical Division of Work and having developed countries dominating the world market and establish their rules to follow surviving as a society, although other societies suffer shortage.

muro-berlin

The fall of the Berlin wall discredits an important world power that tried to change teh face of the world. The laws that govern societies go beyond differences of social class and economica laws, are so complex and dynamic that we can not claim to have control of these.

The socialist model, for example, was looking for a fair redistribution of wealth, but was not able to generate wealth at the same rate in the capitalist world.

Christianity, still present, its principles should still inspire leaders of humanity; anyway, a society that will diminish inequalities breaking the great evils of poverty and violence of modern societies, but not in itself solve the problem of human survival in its exploitation of natural resources and technological needs.

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THE DIVISION OF WORK (4)

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THE INTERNAL DIFFERENCES

 

The Leaders

 

If we see the great monuments of the old cultures, say asian, european, american, and so on, it is surprising seeing religious motives in predominant presence, also in literature and pictorial art. If we study the social organization of these cultures, we will notice that the religious hierarchy played an important role, together with the military class and noble families. In some many cases there are a combination of these three kind of social leadership.

 

If we go back again to the primitive tribe which had an equalitarian social organization, we could suppose that inside the Division of Work initially formed there are showed up situations which give important role to a specialized hunting group, so they become in support to its confrontations with other tribes; it is born an army which is key for the tribe surviving, it will guarantee successful fight against beasts and enemy tribes and it could assure a territory expansion. The army members, specially their leaders, they will acquire a privileged situation inside the group Division of Work scheme; maybe they wont´t take part of the daily production activities, but they will have a place in the goods distribution in a special way due their importance. So the military class could be born from the necessity to fight against other tribes in order to survive.

However the tribe’s surviving fight is not limited to its capacity of acquiring nature resources and fighting against other tribes, but they have to confront to natural phenomenons which in several cases will have great impact in their life, so it will acquire a vital importance.                Droughts, earthquakes, storms, floods, frosts, epidemics, and so on will cause many deaths that the tribe will look at the need to control them somehow, or at least be prepared for when they occur. In these situations arise some observers of nature that acquire, initially empirically some knowledge to explain natural phenomena. These knowledges will be mixed with fantasies those will become mythes and religions. So they will make sacrifices to appease the wrath of the gods, which is no more than a respect for unknown things. The tribe priests will be respected as the army, maybe more because the religion will be present in the daily fight against the nature, its action field will be enhanced until to involve unknown mysteries as death, the destiny and cosmos. By this way it will arise a religious class which will have also a privileged situation inside the Division of Work.

faraon-egipcio

The familiar clans, the nobility inside the tribe arise from the military and religious leadership mix. In the tribe history will arise personalities who will play a good guideline role, that will lead the tribe to success in his fight for survival

The familiar clans, the nobility inside the tribe arise from the military and religious leadership mix. In the tribe history will arise personalities who will play a good guideline role, that will lead the tribe to success in his fight for survival, whether merely in the organizational field, militarily or religious conduct effective in the fight against the adversities of nature. So they will acquire , initially for tacit acceptance of the tribe members, a privileged situation inside the Division of Work and goods distributions; the leader will try to extend this situation to his descendants, something that will be no bad viewed for the tribe, because the need to have good leaders is than important that it will be valid a hereditary character for the leadership.

 

By this way the internal equalitarian model of the tribe will be distorted by the military and religious class, but they arise from the survival need.

 

 

The Division of Work

 

As we said before, the Division of Work is an important human society characteristic across the history, it allows the existence of each time greater civilizations. We can assure that without Division of Work won’t be possible a group human development, neither its survival at an environment in which it must confront challengers for an adequate nature resource use. The Division of Work creates specialized individual groups which according to historic situations and economic laws go to a differentiation between them, so they will become a different position inside the society and a unequal treatment in the distribution  of goods those are fruits of the Division of Work productive activity.

If we are, for instance in the Old World, a culture as greeks or Phoenicians. In such society a doctor becomes all a personality , the fact that to reach to have the cure hability needs qualities and dedication which no every people can have, doctors will become shortage so they will be respected and will have an more comfortable state than a farmer for instance because there will be plenty of this last kind of man in the society. Similarly, a merchant will also be a special and privileged personality, his ability in trade and courage to take big trips will allow an important position within the social group to which it belongs.

medico-romano

Doctor becomes all a personality, the fact that to reach to have the cure hability needs qualities and dedication which no every people can have

This social groups division, according to situations which are mixing with some factors as the classes that we mentioned before, or with ethnic dominance factors, will create social classes which will have a differentiated and unequal situation in the goods distribution inside the Division of Work.

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THE WORK DIVISION (3)

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CULTURE DIFFERENCES

 

The selfish gene

 

If we see the fierce and savage fight of animals for surviving, we can notice the evolution process meaning, it is the surviving of the species which have done a better adaptation to a changing environment. Man, biologically speaking, is no more than a specie as others in the nature, he must kill animals to survive, for instance, to get food; however thanks to his miracolous intelligence he can be the nature’s owner so take to his disposition all life being over it.

supervivencia-animal

There are theories those establish selfish gene, it means that the evolution process has as one of its factor a predominance gene pressure

There are theories those establish  selfish gene, it means that the evolution process has as one of its factor a predominance gene pressure, each of them try to reproduce as much possible and to eliminate the others. Certainly we can observe in the nature that each living being, by instinct, fights not only to keep alive but to reproduce and assure the descendant existence. Same thing is with human being, due his social nature and his organization based in Division of Work, he made possible to form groups, initially tribes, whom with a common interest in order to survive have stablished joint rules of life. However, this interest for group living should not be expanded to all the human species, but only at the closed tribe group. The reason that explain why each human group associates without an integration to all the human species could be of an anthropoid antiquity, migrations, natural dispersion of the first human groups looking for life resources, genetic human mutations make more complex the human differences and produce several races. So when different tribes encounter there is a natural distrust because there are not a common history or daily life those could aid to a mutual identification, so each tribe prefers to keep its internal organization avoiding an integration. Those tribes, in a natural resources shortage situation, become enemies and fight between them with a result in that the looser moves out the place, or it is exterminated or enslaved. Certainly, in this last case, for instance, the social organization resulted would be a dominant group and a dominated group; the dominant group would have a privileged products distribution which are produced by both groups, it would allow it to survive with more security and to develop several activities in order to find better production technics and satisfaction of needs.

guerras-primitivas

When different tribes ancounter there is a natural distrust because the are not a common history or daily life those could aid to a mutual identification

 

The culture factor

 

The most strong surviving law is basic inside the tribal relations, they emerge slavery societies where the dominant group imposes its rules and keeps a privileged situation in order to guarantee its surviving; doesn’t matter the dominated group extinction as long as it doesn’t happen in the dominant group.

The human groups coexistence with territorial separation and culture and commercial exchange is only possible if there is not a severe natural resources shortage in some of these groups, or besides there are historic factors as fight against common enemies, common interest to confront some natural disaster, and so on which allow the coexistence. As nowdays, each society will try to resolve their internal problems and will accept a mutual respect with other societies.

Culture is a characteristic which will identify and personalize to a social group. Culture is a characteristic which will identify and personalize to a social group. Culture is a society’s long development result which is transmitting and evolve  generation by generation. The way how a social group has survived has generated several knowledges, lot of them were saved jealously, they will guarantee the society surviving; it is not easy to discard all the knowledge that became religious beliefs, uses and production technics. So, to the genetic factor, which made possible identification of a society in racial likeness based, it is added the cultural factor which over the physics appear likeness implies customs likeness, beliefs and knowledges which will be possible the society members cohesion.

 

Culture could be an integrator element, a dominant group could impose its culture and disappear to the dominated group´s culture, and if it overcame the racial factor influence, the dominated group could be integrated to the dominant group. History has a lot of these cases.

But there is not easy to disappear a society culture, this is so engrained to the survive instinct of the individual who hardly will accept to  change it, as long as he is part of a social group, he is part of its culture.

However culture follows its evolution, it becomes universal and imposes little by little general coexistence rules between great societies. Culture is an indispensable factor for the humanity survival.

 

Nowdays each society is divided in different “cultures”, several of them conducive irreconcilable differences; but we can´t expect it maintain forever, the human knowledge evolution and its surviving need will create joint elements, where the differences will be discarded and there will be accepted truths  which imposes itself. Culture can impose over our ancient genetic differences. Even, if there will be a great genetic engineering development, a man domain over genetic factors, it will become to a situation where the racial differences will be obsolete.

pioneros-americanos

United States of America conforms of a heritage of the European culture, and if is added favorable factors in natural resources, it will result of that development level. Finally the European culture has continued its develop in America

Culture is a key element for a society development, it is a result of a generation experience which is transmitted to the next and it goes accumulating generation by generation. We could think, by instance, that a certain country is more development that other according its more develop age or centuries; but we could ask, how United States of America is a high development country without an age of a Asiatic, European or African country?. The answer is that the this country society conforms of an heritage of the European culture, and if it is added favorable factors in natural resources, it will result of that development level. Finally the European culture has continued its develop in America.

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THE WORK DIVISION (2)

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THE NATURAL RESOURCES

 

The front lobe

 

The man intelligence allows it get a nature domain, over the animals, getting a supremacy level over all they. Since that time man becomes the earth owner, specifically he takes land possession and exploits the natural resources in order to his needs satisfaction. Obviously, this is gradually done, hundred thousand years along. Because the earth is so immensely large at the stone age compared to the fledgling human population, so man can survive  with a nomadic activity without having to fight for a territorial position facing their peers; moving to another place is enough to  have the same natural resources that he had just left. This process allows human along all continents migration, even America.

mapa-emigratorio-hombre

Because the earth is so immensely large at the stone age compared to the fledgling human population, so man can survive with nomadic activity without having to fight for a territorial position facing their peers.

When man becomes sedentary due to, beside other things, agriculture and livestock discovery, these will aid to him to renew foods without moving to another place, so he will prefer to have territorial possession with the natural resources to obtain a maximum benefits. When there are more systematic production activity, it becomes a Division of Work based organization. This organization form is going to evolution as  new production technics have been discovered.

 

At this part, we want to appoint, that the man intelligence quality is one of the determinant factors to his social evolution. His synthesize experiences capacity, the language, motor skills, and so on, allow great technologic events as: stone and metal management to make tools, the fire, the agriculture, animals domestications, the wheel, and so on. So, at this moment there are continuously and endless chain of events which are transforming the society, what if not are the industrial revolution, the informatics, spatial voyagers, and so on?

mapa-civilizaciones-primitivas

The first civilitations have different histories, religions and cultures, they live under rules that sometimes become wars by territorial and cultural domain

But this technologic development, apparently it doesn´t go with the our planet deterioration, the more and more critical natural resource availability which open new technical challenger to fix it.

 

 

 

Land ownership

 

How the natural resources availability have influenced in the human society forms?

The basic human needs are in the nature: air, water, proteins, and so on. We could make a nature resources inventory in our planet, so we could divide this between the world population and we could take an idea our survive capacity as specie.                If after that division we take account there is a deficit, we seriously could have to plan technics challenger in order to control the world population growing and/or improve our safe and renew adequately our natural resources. International Organizations as FAO must have this statistics and know more exactly our situation.

 

Primitive age man had same problems, but in a more reduced ambit. Ancient man ought to know when is the time for preys hunting, tools making, shacks making, seeds cultivating, and so on, with the resource that he had in hands. He solved his deficit problems by several ways: enhancing his land ownership, if would be possible, moving out to foreign tribes from there, making population control methods, discovering new food productions technics, tools fabrication, building technics, and so on. As population was growing more , there was necessary more territory, more foods, more shacks, more clothes. If inside that space is missing some basic nature resource, they must get it by exchanging activity with other human groups, or finding a way to replace with other available resource applying certain technic tool in order to optimize the use or production of that missing resource.

Nowdays, we are divided in so many countries, each of them with a well defined territory, but with an unequal resource availability, unequal technic capacity to exploit these resources. One of our great problem is, for example, the child death in the undevelopment countries, it is due these countries don´t have enough nature resources, or they have not an adequate technic development which would be necessary to have a production activity that they need.

ciudad-desarrollada

The more developed nations direct world and give guidelines for having the privilege of techonological and material resources in general, therefore also have greater responsability in the fate of humanity

pueblo-atrasado

On the other hand sub developed countries are just dedicated to survive and do not have a leadership role in the conduct of mankind

So, a country with technologic disadvantage won´t be able to exploit adequately his natural resource, as his population grow it will be more difficult it, his productive infrastructure will become obsolete and insufficient, it will be very expensive to renew it and even more to enhance it. This will form cities with very unbalanced faces, one site with human groups well organized in a former system production, in other site ghetto groups  trying to survive by improvised resources, informal activities; as time elapses there will be more generalized deterioration even in the groups that initially were formals. In this environment, the primitive equalitarian Division of Work model  and goods distribution is so difficult to reproduce in certain countries due their an historic delayed heritage. Anyway it is necessary a great planned effort, serious, technic, with great sacrifices and social overcoming desire, it implies a society members consensus.

It will be necessary, besides, development countries participation, which have a high needs satisfaction level, high technic development in order to aid to the poor countries. Later we will describe the diversified human societies relations, which somehow make so difficult  to get an equilibrium in the nation development.

 

We have wanted emphasize that the nature resources availability, besides the technic capacity to exploit it, have influence in the adequate or distorted goods distribution between society members. It could be society systems with a certain Division of Work model, maybe as a result of a historic chance, with no detailed planning, but it works for a certain social life age; after that it will be involved in a crisis each time more critical due the population pressure which as years are passing  they have more no satisfied needs, it obligates to break old schemes which were maintained for decades in order to change the Division of Work model for the purpose of  get a better goods distribution. This occurs, besides others causes, when there are not enough capacity to exploit the available nature resources. Going back to the our primitive model, we could image the tribe living in harmony in a valley with enough hunting and agriculture activities to needs satisfaction for all population, but a new people generation makes that nature resources become no sufficient; this situation will obligates to decrease the goods ration for each people, if this procedure doesn´t do immediately, the young people will pressure to obtain more necessary goods according to their job, sooner or later the tribe must rationalize the production and consume.

 

In this example, a problem solution could be the tribe discover some hunting technic, animal domestication or some artificial irrigation technic that allows it growing up its production with the available nature resource, so it could satisfy better the new population needs. Another valid solution could be to expand their territory, if there was necessary expelling to foreign tribes from certain territory, it implies military capacity, which probably has been formed along tribe life in its continuous fight to survive. We will see later that in the complex sociobiological process of the tribe development take influence genetic and culture factors, these can be named ethnic which is a social group identification that establish a differentiation from the other human groups; the several ethnic groups relations can be friendly or hostile, the last thing is usually more frecuent especially in scarcity times. Such is in nowdays, after a long historic process the humanity has a political division as countries, which internally, ones more that another ones have got a nation identity, they can assume duties and rights based in common interest.

 

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THE WORK DIVISION (1)

12 Ene

INTRODUCTION

 

 

A SINGLE HISTORY

 

Finding some law or a set of  laws which manage the human societies development, or the humanity itself, were the several researchers interests in the philosophy, religion, anthropology, social sciences, politicians or economics issues. Obviously this is a  very important theme, if we would find how is the human society development, we could know where are we going to and what can we do to fix the several problems we have. Can we avoid wars, hungry, crime, powers abuses, injustices, race problems, and so on?.

 

It appears an utopic challenger, within the XXI century, after we have got so many human transcendental conquers as the technological age, spatial voyages, and so on, we are still asking if we have forgotten to study our social diseases cure in order to fix it. But I think that never is so late, or never is useless to ask some questions, or better, now we have a lot of informatics tools and great knowledges about history, anthropology, economic and social theories, so we can to try get answers to such humanity questions.

 

As an attempt to understand the humanity future I will show, along this document, a very single theory and maybe yet incomplete about this issue.

 

I think that the humanity development is only part of the life beings development or evolution, of the nature in general, we are not over they, so great part that we are as persons or society is not more that an our anthropoid past heritage, of our fierce fight to survive.

 

Man with intelligence develops, among other things, the language, this give it the possibility to establish more and more complex societies based in the individual action coordination, going on group actions, and the knowledge and uses transmission to posterior generations; so it makes possible the progress avoiding to stay stagnant  in some social or cultural situation.

Inside the concept that we called individual action coordination, we can to proclaim the capital importance of the Division of Work in the humanity development. About it, as a didactic example we can describe an almost ideal but illustrative situation about how it happened.

 

chimpancé

Man with intelligence develops, among other things, the language, this give it the possibility to establish mor and more societies based in the individual action coordination

 

We place in stone age, a primitive tribe. Each individual who belongs to the tribe has basic necessities to survive, as: food, clothe and house. If each individual was in charge of finding his own food, cooking to eat it, make his clothes, to build and maintain his house, maybe an entire day could not enough to do these things, so he could not plenty satisfy his basic necessities.

 

But this tribe has certain knowledges acquired by heritage, maybe from the primates way of life, they know advantages to make things in group as the hunting, for example, it is better to make it in group, so if they divide their activities to make it in group they can be obtain better results.

So, some people dedicate to hunting, as others to make foods, others to make clothes, others to build houses, others to care and educate children, and so on, finally, the fruits of each labour will be exchange materials in order to satisfy the necessities of everyone. In such way, for example, people who have dedicated to hunting, at the end of the day, would distribute the prey to all the tribe members, while people who have made clothes ought to distribute these to the tribe members, each of they could have theirs caves already to rest, and so, we could suppose an equitable distributions or some other way but taking care to avoid dissatisfied necessities.

Tribu-primitiva

Some people dedicate to hunting, as others to make foods, others to make clothes, others to build houses, others to care and educate children, an so on

As a matter of fact, with some variants, this is the base for all societies, so we can now describe the modern man way of life, and to observe that it is not so different to the tribe that we have talked about.

 

In a modern days, we can image a busy day, the alarm clock sounds, man wakes up, he takes a shower, brushes his teeth, shaves his face. After that he turns on his electric cooker and make a breakfast with certain foods those are taken off from the refrigerator, turns on the radio and listens the morning news, goes out home and takes a bus, arrives at certain factory and operates a machine in such car factory.

Ciudad-moderna

In a modern days, we can image a busy day, teh alarm clock sounds, man wakes up, he takes a shower, brushes his teeth, shaves his face. The Division of Work taht the ancient tribe discovered reamins in our days, however the indiividual necessities have suffered so many divisions

This man is a “piece” of a great international car factory, thanks to his sand grain that is his work contribution so many people around the world could have the car comfort to move between long distance places, as a retribution he can to take a shower due to other people are in charge to supply water to the city, or he can take a good  breakfast because other people are in charge to obtains foods and distribute it, so there are people who give radio programs or transportation services.

The Division of Work that the ancient tribe discovered remains in our days, however the individual necessities have suffered so many divisions to became uncountable, in such way there are a great diversity in the activities to get the necessity satisfactions forming finally a much more complex society than the old tribe.

 

This is an easy introduction to the Division of Work concept, but furthermore analysis it will show us a more complex situation and so close to the reality, and this reality is such we want to understand, and is if could be possible, improve it.

 

 

CLOSER TO THE REALITY

 

Our primitive tribe example shows us an equal society, so equilibrated, almost utopic; obviously if each people participates of the consumer goods production for all the group, this group will enjoy of the entire necessary consumer goods for its survive which are produced for other people of the group; if this works perfectly, nobody will suffer missing consumer goods as long as they give their share work.

 

This model could suffer some alteration due several factors as:

 

  • Natural resources availability for all the group. If there would be hunting prey shortage, people who dedicates to hunting will diminish their social share, it will produces certain adjust in that group in order to avoid a group survive negative impact.
  • Strange tribes intromission. Land possession competence, domination relationship between tribes.
  • Relatives, religious and military clans formations inside the tribe. Facts as leaders establishment who are accepted by the group because survive reasons convenience, these turns out a leader social classes, who enjoy privilege situation in the Division of Work and the consumer goods distributions.

 

All these factors combined distort throughout history the egalitarian model we suppose that could have been the primitive man. Present civilization is not more that a complex social model, with several countries diversification according their development, each time with more international integration, we can say that there is a world Division of Work process. Is there an imperfection or distortion from a more egalitarian model?, I believe there is, because nothing is entirely perfect and everything is possible to be improved, but we must take account that this situation  is an historic reality, everything was obeyed some humanity evolution course, each generation have inherited an already formed model along history centuries, so it is not easy to change the rooted rules in the societies, there are cases that show us radical changes, religious, politicians, economics, cultures, scientifics and so on event changes which have great influences in the society evolution bringing Division of Work game rules changes.

guerreros-asirios

The egalitarian primitive model is going to distorted by the arise of relatives, militar and religious classes

So, humanity development motion laws understanding could lead us to transform it, improve it, avoid social disasters, wars and so on, so we, as human been, could do simply, one more time, our peculiar quality of nature transformation capacity. Certainly, the whole history along, there were appear several messianic ideas pretending to improve the society; but, if this challenge we could purpose, now, with all our technic capacity reached in our century, don´t you think that we could have better results?.

 

 

From this point of view we are going to expand a little more over these factors which were influences in the Division of Work based societies forming, these have been produced great distortions in the consumers goods distributions.

 

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